Choosing a water pump for a summer residence, home and garden: an overview of all types of pumping structures

Choosing a water pump for a summer residence, home and garden: an overview of all types of pumping structures

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A water pump is the main element of water supply, irrigation and irrigation systems. The operation of the entire system as a whole depends on its functionality. If the device was initially selected incorrectly, there is not enough power or the design of the device is not suitable for the functions performed, then malfunctions are inevitable. In this case, you will either have to buy additional devices to compensate for the disadvantage, or change the model itself. In order to choose the right water pump for water for a home, a summer residence or a garden, it is necessary to take into account the design features, the principle of operation, the purpose and technical characteristics of the water-lifting equipment.

General principles of pump design

Each type of pump has its own design features, but the general principle of operation for all pumping devices is the same. When the electric motor is turned on, a vacuum is created inside the housing. Due to the low pressure, water is sucked into the vacuum chamber, moves to the outlet and is forcefully pushed through it into the hose or pipeline. The force of the water squeezing out determines the pressure in the system. It must be high enough to overcome the hydraulic resistance.

All pumps work on the principle of drawing in water through the inlet and ejection through the outlet, they differ only in the way of creating a vacuum

Pump designs can vary significantly depending on how a vacuum is created in the device, according to this criterion, pumps are divided into:

  • centrifugal;
  • vortex;
  • vibration (the second name is electromagnetic).

Depending on the location of the pump relative to the water tank, surface and submersible models are distinguished. By design and functionality, the devices are divided into well, borehole, drainage, motor pumps. A more detailed explanation is given in the video below:

Centrifugal pump - universal equipment

Devices of this type are used in almost all areas - both industrial and household. The principle of operation is based on the creation of a centrifugal force inside the body, due to which the movement of water occurs, a pressure is created. The blades and wheels of the working part, while rotating, draw in the liquid, pressed against the wall, and then pushed out into the outlet. Depending on the design and purpose, devices are divided into many groups. They can be surface and submersible, cantilever, horizontal, vertical, monoblock, single and multi-stage.

All structural elements are made of high-strength materials, the parts practically do not wear out. The pumps are expected to run continuously. Therefore, they are designed to be easy and fast to service. Devices can operate at high temperatures and in chemically aggressive environments, the characteristics depend on the features of a particular model. Some of them can withstand up to 350 degrees.

The advantages of centrifugal pumps include reliability, durability, reliability, reasonable price, the ability to equip with the necessary automation, high efficiency. However, like any other device, this type of pump has its own disadvantages. So, to start the device, the case must be filled with water, since due to the low centrifugal force, water is not sucked into the pipe. If air enters the inlet, the pump may stop. In addition, if the resistance in the power grid changes, it can affect the stability of the device.

Surface centrifugal pumps are mobile, easy to dismantle and transport, but they are poorly suited for stationary installation

Centrifugal cantilever pumps are widely used. They are used for pumping clean and dirty water containing impurities and small solid particles. For water supply systems of houses and summer cottages, single-stage horizontal cantilever pumps are used. Multistage horizontal pumps are a design that operates as several identical, series-connected, single-stage devices. Thanks to this, they are able to provide a powerful head in the system.

Centrifugal water pumps are purchased for homes, summer cottages, irrigation and irrigation systems. They are installed in water supply systems powered by wells. Submersible and semi-submersible models are used. The former are easier to install, while the latter are easier to maintain. To install a semi-submersible model in a well, special conditions are required. This is a laborious job, therefore, despite the obvious advantages, owners of private houses often opt for submersible models. They can be installed in wells where there were deviations from the vertical during the installation of the casing. The disadvantages of structures include high sensitivity to sand and dirt.

We offer an overview of centrifugal monoblock water pumps, perfect for the garden:

Features of the work of vortex-type structures

The device is powered by a vortex wheel, which is a metal disk with blades that create centrifugal force. Due to its structural features, water swirls in spirals that look like a vortex. The main advantage of vortex pumps is their powerful head. With the dimensions, weight, wheel dimensions and the number of revolutions equal to the centrifugal pump, the vortex provides a stronger head. Therefore, the dimensions of the vortex model body can be significantly smaller than that of the centrifugal one.

Due to the high pressure created by vortex pumps, they are successfully used for watering gardens and vegetable gardens. They are perfect for installation in water supply systems for summer cottages and private houses, if there is a need to increase the pressure in the network. Unlike centrifugal models, vortex models normally transfer large air bubbles entering the pipeline. The compact dimensions expand the scope of this pump type. Among the disadvantages is sensitivity to suspended particles in water. If there are a lot of them, the pump will work intermittently and quickly become unusable.

Due to their compact size and high power, vortex pumps are well suited for installation in deep wells with small diameters.

Vibrating pumps for home and garden

For the home, cottage and garden, you can choose an electric vibration type water pump. Its principle of operation is based on the effect of an electromagnetic field created by a coil that draws in a metal core with a flexible diaphragm. Bending, the rubber diaphragm creates a low pressure, which draws water into the hydraulic chamber. When the diaphragm is returned to its place, the pressure rises and a valve is activated to close the inlet, so water is pushed out through the outlet. The constant movement of the diaphragm ensures uninterrupted pumping of water.

Vibration pumps are used to organize watering and irrigation of plants. They are installed in autonomous water supply systems. A huge advantage of this design is the ability to pump contaminated water, which makes it possible to use them when pumping wells and boreholes for preventive cleaning. When working with dirty water, the performance of vibration pumps drops noticeably, but they are quite capable of cleaning the bottom of hydraulic structures. Another plus of the design is the relatively low cost and reliability. The durability of the devices is ensured by a design in which there are no moving, rubbing parts.

If the diameter of the well is relatively large, then you can install a vibration pump, after putting rubber rings on it to damp vibration

The disadvantages of electric vibration pumps are no less than their advantages. In the operation of devices, malfunctions often occur in the event of voltage surges in the mains. If the home owner decides to install a vibration pump, you will additionally have to purchase a voltage stabilizer. Such pumps are successfully used for pumping water from wells, but it is undesirable to install them in wells, especially of small diameter, despite the ease of installation. The constant vibration negatively affects the casing design and sooner or later the pump will either break on its own or destroy the production tubing.

It is undesirable to mount the Trickle pump in narrow casing pipes. This can result in an unplanned pump repair or even drilling a new well.

Application of surface and submersible pumps

All water-lifting equipment can be divided into surface and submersible. Pumps of the first type are installed near hydraulic structures or reservoirs from which water is taken. The latter are immersed in water. Designs differ in performance, type and location of inlet nozzles, acceptable installation conditions. Surface models are usually cheaper and are capable of working when the water layer is below 80 cm. Submersible pumps must operate at a depth of at least 1 m below the surface of the water.

Surface models are a good choice for watering

A surface water pump for a garden or vegetable garden is ideal if you need to organize watering from a natural reservoir or volumetric reservoir. If necessary, it is easy to dismantle and move it to another place, put it away for storage. It is well suited for summer cottages. Such a pump can be installed to take water from a well or a shallow well (up to 9 m), an Abyssinian well. In this case, the owner will not have to select the device by diameter, because only the hose is lowered into the well, and the pump itself is installed next to the production pipe.

Pumping stations belong to surface water-lifting equipment. They are multifunctional systems that combine a pump and a hydraulic accumulator

The only caveat is that for mounting a surface model, you need to prepare a room where the device will be protected from moisture, and the noise from its operation will not interfere with anyone. Install the device either on the ground or on a special floating platform if you need to take water from an open source. When installing in leaking pits, the bottom is not poured with concrete, but covered with gravel. Bulk materials absorb excess moisture that may appear when water seeps through the seams of concrete rings or masonry.

When calculating the required power, you need to remember that the ratio of the vertical and horizontal length is 1: 4, i.e. 1 m of vertical pipeline is considered as 4 m of horizontal. For the organization of water supply, it is better to use plastic pipes, rather than rubber hoses. When pumping fluid through flexible hoses, they can shrink and bend due to pressure drops. Water will not pass through the narrow opening normally, resulting in interruptions in the flow.

With the help of surface equipment, it is easy to organize watering of the plants from the pond. To do this, when choosing a model, it is necessary to take into account that the water will come with particles of dirt and sand.

Submersible equipment for water supply at home

The best pump for water for a house or a summer residence where they live for a long time is a submersible. It is well suited if you plan to install a water supply system from a deep well (over 9-10 m). A common household model raises water from a well up to 40 m deep, and for deeper structures, you can find a more powerful device. Problems rarely arise with the selection of pumps for wells up to 80 m. the assortment is extensive. All submersible models are equipped with automatic dry-running protection.

It is possible to install a submersible pump if it does not touch the bottom, and the height of the water layer above it is at least 1 m. This is necessary for several reasons. First, there must be enough water for the engine to cool properly. Secondly, the water level in the well or well is not stable. It may change depending on the season. It is important that the pump does not get too close to the water mirror, otherwise difficulties with the water supply may arise. The pump should not reach the bottom by 2-6 m, so that dirt and grains of sand from the bottom do not fall into the inlet pipe.

A distinctive feature of drainage pumps is the ability to pump both clean water and dirty water with solids. A grid is provided on the inlet pipe of such a pump. Devices can be connected to water supply systems

When choosing an electric water pump for your home, summer cottage or garden, first of all consider its purpose. There is no perfect equipment for everything. Consider what main tasks the device will perform, whether it will work only to pump clean water or there is a possibility that it will have to lift water with sand and mud.

When choosing a specific model, be sure to take into account the most important technical parameters: power, performance, efficiency, maximum head. If during the calculations you have doubts about their correctness, consult a specialist. As for the brands of household water pumps, the brands Wilo, DAB, Jileks, Belamos have proven themselves well. The market leader is the Grundfos brand.

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Garden watering pump

Taking care of the beds, every summer resident expects to receive a rich harvest. To do this, it is necessary to establish uniform watering of vegetables and fruits. In seasons when there is a high level of rainfall, there is no need to run around with buckets and think about the level of moisture in the soil. However, in dry seasons, the beds require stable watering, and most summer cottages are not equipped with a central water supply system. Then the ideal solution is to purchase an irrigation pump.

How to choose the right borehole pumps?

Roughly, the required pump head can be calculated using a fairly simple formula:
Ntreb = Ndin + Ndoma + Nnap + 20%, where:
Ntreb - required head, m
Ndin is the dynamic water level, i.e. distance to the water level in the well from the ground surface after turning on the pump (when the pump is turned on, the water level usually drops by 3 - 8 m), m

Ndoma - the distance from the upper level of the rise of water in the house to the surface of the earth, m

Ннп - pressure that provides pressure in the water supply system (usually 1 - 3 atmospheres, i.e. 10 - 30 m of water column), m.

20% is added taking into account the resistance in the pipeline. Naturally, this figure is approximate and depends on the distance from the well to the house.
When describing pumping stations, we have already talked more than once about the need to install a check valve. When using borehole pumps, it is also needed so that water does not go back into the well when the pump is turned off.
It should be noted that dry running protection is also extremely important for borehole pumps. The cause of "dry running" is the fall of water in the well or well below the critical level, as a result of which the engine overheats, which leads to pump failure.
A float system can be used to protect the pump in this situation. In this case, the scheme of work is quite simple. The float drops when the water level falls and, by opening the power supply circuit, turns off the pump. When the water rises to a normal level, the float will rise again and, closing the circuit, turns on the pump.
The pump protection works in a similar way by means of two special electrodes (level sensors) immersed in the water. The electrodes are connected to a protective device. If the water level is below the lower electrode, the safety device turns off the pump, and vice versa, when the water rises to the upper electrode, the pump turns on.

Another way to protect the pump is to use a pressure switch with dry running protection, which is an ordinary pressure switch with a contact opening function when the pressure drops below a threshold value. No water - no pressure, and the relay opens the contacts supplying the pump. After that, the pump can be restarted only manually, having previously established and eliminated the cause of the dry running.
For the automatic operation of the water supply system (that is, so that the pump turns on when drawing water, and when it is completed it turns off without human intervention), it is necessary to jointly use a pressure switch and a hydraulic accumulator. When the tap is opened, water comes from the hydraulic tank, and then, when the pressure in the tank drops to the set limit, the pressure switch turns on the pump and it works until the pressure in the system is restored.

Such a scheme allows you to save the pump from frequent on / off switching and to mitigate water hammer when starting it, thereby extending the life of the pump. In order to extend the service life of the accumulator and pump, the following rule should be observed: the capacity of the accumulator for 1 cubic meter per hour of the pump capacity should be 50 liters.
Using modern borehole pumps with electronic frequency control, it is possible to maintain a constant water pressure. Regardless of the number of taps that are currently open, the pump automatically maintains the set pressure in the water supply system. This allows significant savings in energy consumption and provides the required level of comfort (GRUNDFOS SQE).

Types of surface water pumps

What types of pumps for use in summer cottages exist on the market - let's look at.

Centrifugal Water Pump

The principle of its operation is simple: the impeller blades rotate, creating a centrifugal force, pushing the water back to the walls and creating pressure energy, thanks to which the jet rushes into the pipeline. They are poly- and mono-stage. Multi-stage provide more head. The peculiarities of centrifugal structures operation are the need to fill the housing with water for start-up, provide protection from precipitation during installation and level the ingress of air into the pipeline.

Self-priming water pumps

These portable units pump clean water together with air. Can remove air from liquid. Self-priming pump - very compact and easy to transport.

Vortex water pumps

These devices are also resistant to air ingress, but when there is contamination in the water, they are ineffective and wear out quickly. The principle of their work is in a metal flat disc with straight blades, which saturates water molecules with additional energy. And, as a consequence, it increases the supply force in the pipeline. Vortex pumps are much smaller than centrifugal ones, and the head is higher.

Liquid ring pumps

They are universal in terms of the possibility of pumping not only from reservoirs and wells, but also diesel fuel with fuel oil from cars and other equipment. But due to the high cost in arranging the water supply of the site, it is rarely used.

Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages. But if the choice still fell on external structures, the composition of the water and the power of the model should be taken into account so that the purchase is practical and the product lasts for a long time.

DIY pump

There are many ways to assemble a water pump with your own hands. This is not as difficult as it might seem at first glance. Below are the three most popular options for pumping water using a DIY device.

Water overflow pump

The most primitive design, or rather, even the overflow method, is a check valve. Ideal for pumping water from a garden bed irrigation tank. This pumping method is familiar to everyone. We need a hose, one end of which is lowered into a container of water. We create pressure from the other end, you don't have to be smart, but just pull the air towards you with your mouth. That's it, the water will flow as long as the level of the first end is higher than the second.

Hand pump

For the design of such a device, you need:

  • sewer pipe 5 centimeters in diameter with a plug,
  • check valve 0.5 two pieces,
  • sewer pipe 2.4 centimeters in diameter,
  • rubber,
  • nuts, bolts, 7 mm thread, washers,
  • clamps,
  • drives,
  • clamps.

The pump assembly takes place in several stages.

Manual pump device diagram

The first stage is the collection of the cartridge case

  1. We make the basis for the sleeve, for this we cut off 65 centimeters of a pipe with a diameter of 50 millimeters.
  2. We install a plug on one end.
  3. We make holes in the plug - 7-11 pieces, 4-7 millimeters in diameter.
  4. We cut out a circle of rubber, 2-4 millimeters thick and 5 centimeters in diameter.
  5. We fix the rubber in the center of the plug with a bolt or rivet, a self-tapping screw will not work.
  6. We fix the plug securely, you can use glue, and screw in self-tapping screws on the sides for strength.

The second step in assembling a hand pump is to design the piston.

  1. We install a check valve into a tube 70-80 centimeters long and 2.4 centimeters in diameter.
  2. The piston head is made from an unnecessary tube, it must be warmed up and inserted into the finished sleeve so that it takes the desired shape. The diameter of the tube should be 3.3 centimeters.
  3. After deformation of the tube and its arrival in the desired shape, it is necessary to fix it to the check valve.
  4. Next, you need to insert the piston into the sleeve and put the plug, it is not necessary that it sit close.
  5. We install a squeegee under the hose in the rod, you can choose the diameter yourself.

That's all, you can pump water, however, there is one inconvenience: the water drain is constantly in motion.

Pump from compressor

If you have a compressor, it can be a great pump. After all, the compressor, for the most part, is a pump, only for air. With two pipes of different diameters, it can be converted to pump water. Install a larger pipe on the suction port than on the outlet. This will create high pressure in the system.

Whatever type and design water pumps are, they all serve the same purpose: pumping water for convenience in everyday life and in the garden.

Watch the video: Free Water Pressure! No Pump Needed! Using Gravity to Pressurize Water.


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